Hypothetical stages of 1 Sam 1:1-2:11a

 

The Early Source

.… he had two wives, the name of the one was Hannah, and the name of the other Peninnah. Peninnah had children, but Hannah had no children. Now this man used to go up from his town year by year to worship and to sacrifice to [Elohim?] at Gibeon. On one day Kish sacrificed…. He would give portions to his wife Peninnah and all her children, but to Hannah he would give a choice portion, because he loved her…. Hannah wept and would not eat. Kish her husband said to her, “Hannah, why do you weep, why do you not eat, why is your heart sad? Am I not more to you than ten sons? Hannah arose [and went out from the dining hall] and presented herself before [Elohim], while [Ahitub?] the priest was sitting on the seat by the doorpost of the temple. She was deeply distressed and prayed to Elohim weeping bitterly. She made a vow saying, “Elohim, if only you will look on the misery of your maidservant, and remember me, and give to your maidservant a male child, then I will dedicate him before you….” As she continued to pray before Elohim, Ahitub observed her mouth. She was speaking in her heart; only her lips moved, but her voice was not heard. Therefore Ahitub thought she was drunk. He said to her, “How long will you be drunk? Put away your wine, and go out from the presence of Elohim.” Hannah answered and said, “No, my lord, I am an unfortunate woman. Wine and strong drink I have not drunk, but I have been pouring out my soul before God. Do not regard your maidservant as a daughter of Mot, for I have continued until now out of the greatness of my anxiety and vexation.” Ahitub answered and said, “Go in peace, may God grant the petition you have made to him.” She said, “Let your servant find favor in your sight.” The woman [left] and entered the dining hall; she ate and drank with her husband and no longer had a sad face. They arose early in the morning and worshiped Elohim and went their way. Kish entered his house at Zela and knew his wife Hannah, and Elohim remembered her and she conceived. In due time she bore a son, and she called his name Saul, “for from Elohim I have requested him.” The man Kish and all his household went up to offer to Elohim the yearly sacrifice and his votive offerings. But Hannah did not go up, for she said to her husband, “until the boy goes up when I have weaned him and he will see the face of God.” Her husband Kish said to her, “Do what you think is good, stay until you have weaned him. Only fulfill your vow!” So the woman remained and nursed her son until she weaned him. She went up with him to Gibeon and entered into the house of God. She drew near to the face of God and brought the boy near to Ahitub, and said, “Oh my lord, as you live, I am the woman who was standing near you, praying to Elohim. For this boy I prayed and Elohim has granted me the petition I made to him. Therefore I have given him to Elohim.” She worshipped God and said,

A god of knowledge is Elohim, a god who balances his actions;

The bows of the mighty are broken, but the feeble gird on strength;

Those who were full have hired themselves out for bread, but those who were hungry cease forever;

The barren has borne seven, but she who has many children is bereaved;

Elohim causes to die and brings to life, he brings down to Sheol and raises up;

Elohim makes poor and makes rich, he makes low, he also exalts;

He raises up the poor from the dust, he lifts the needy from the ash heap,

To make them sit with princes and inherit a seat of honor.

 

She left him there before Elohim and went to Zela….

 

The Dtr Composition and Adaptation of the Early Source

There was a certain man of Ramathaim, a Zuphite from the hill country of Ephraim, whose name was Elqanah son of Yerahmeel son of Elihu son of Tohu son of Ziph, an Ephraimite. He had two wives, the name of the one was Hannah, and the name of the other Peninnah. Peninnah had children, but Hannah had no children. Now this man used to go up from his town year by year to worship and to sacrifice to Yahweh of Hosts at Shiloh, where the two sons of Eli, Hophni and Phinehas, were priests of Yahweh. On one day Elqanah sacrificed, and he would give portions to his wife Peninnah and all her children, but to Hannah he would give a fat/choice portion, because he loved her, though Yahweh had closed her womb. Her rival provoked her greatly in order to enrage her, because Yahweh had closed up her womb. Thus she did year after year as often as she went up to the house of Yahweh, she provoked her and Hannah wept and would not eat. Elqanah her husband said to her, “Hannah, why do you weep, why do you not eat, why is your heart sad? Am I not more to you than ten sons? Hannah arose after she had eaten at Shiloh and presented herself before Yahweh, while Eli the priest was sitting on the seat by the doorpost of the temple of Yahweh. She was deeply distressed and prayed to Yahweh weeping bitterly. She made a vow saying, “Yahweh of Hosts, if only you will look on the misery of your maidservant, and remember me and not forget your maidservant, and give to your maidservant a male child, then I will give him before you as a nazirite until the day of his death. He will drink neither wine nor strong drink, and no razor will touch his head.” As she continued to pray before Yahweh, Eli observed her mouth. She was speaking in her heart; only her lips moved, but her voice was not heard. Therefore Eli thought she was drunk. He said to her, “How long will you be drunk? Put away your wine, and go out from the presence of Yahweh.” Hannah answered and said, “No, my lord, I am an unfortunate woman. Wine and strong drink I have not drunk, but I have been pouring out my soul before God. Do not regard your maidservant as a worthless woman, for I have continued until now out of the greatness of my anxiety and vexation.” Eli answered and said, “Go in peace, may the god of Israel grant the petition you have made to him.” She said, “Let your servant find favor in your sight.” The woman went on her way and came toward the dining hall; she ate and drank with her husband and no longer had a sad face. They arose early in the morning and worshiped Yahweh and went their way. Elqanah entered his house at Ramathaim and knew his wife Hannah, and Yahweh remembered her and she conceived. In due time she bore a son, and she called his name Samuel, “for from Yahweh I have requested him.” The man Elqanah and all his household went up to offer in Shiloh the yearly sacrifice, his votive offerings, and all his tithes. But Hannah did not go up, for she said to her husband, “until the boy goes up when I have weaned him and he will appear to the face of God and stay there forever.” Her husband Elqanah said to her, “Do what you think is good, stay until you have weaned him. Only may Yahweh establish your vow!” So the woman remained and nursed her son until she weaned him. She went up with him to Shiloh with a three-year-old bull calf, an ephah of flour, and a skin of wine and entered into the house of Yahweh at Shiloh, and the boy was with them. They brought him before Yahweh, and his father slaughtered the bull calf. Hannah, the mother of the child, brought him to Eli and said, “Oh my lord, as you live, I am the woman who was standing near you, praying to Yahweh. For this boy I prayed and Yahweh has granted me the petition I made to him. Therefore I have given him to Yahweh all the days that he lives, a loan to Yahweh.” She worshipped there to Yahweh and said,

My heart exults in Yahweh, my strength is exalted by my god;

My mouth opened wide after my enemy, for I rejoiced in your victory;

There is no holy one like Yahweh, there is no rock like our god, there is no holy one besides you;

Do not speak very proudly, let not arrogance come from your mouth;

For a god of knowledge is Yahweh, a god who balances his actions;

The bows of the mighty are broken, but the feeble gird on strength;

Those who were full have hired themselves out for bread, but those who were hungry are fat with spoil;

The barren has borne seven, but she who has many children is bereaved;

Yahweh causes to die and brings to life, he brings down to Sheol and raises up;

Yahweh makes poor and makes rich, he makes low, he also exalts;

He raises up the poor from the dust, he lifts the needy from the ash heap,

To make them sit with princes and inherit a seat of honor.

For not by strength is a man mighty;

Yahweh will shatter his adversary; the Most High will thunder in heaven;

Yahweh will judge the ends of the earth, he will give strength to his king and exalt the horn of his anointed.

 

She left him there before Yahweh and went to Ramathaim

 

The LXX Recension

There was a certain man of Ramathaim Ziphy from the hill country of Ephraim, whose name was Elqanah son of Yerahmeel son of Elihu son of Tohu son of Ziph an Ephraimite in Nasib of Ephraim. He had two wives, the name of the one was Hannah, and the name of the other Peninnah. Peninnah had children, but Hannah had no children child. Now this man used to go up from his town year by year from his town Ramathaim to worship and to sacrifice to Yahweh of Hosts at Shiloh, where the two sons of Eli Eli and his two sons, Hophni and Phinehas, were priests of Yahweh. On one day Elqanah sacrificed, and he would give portions to his wife Peninnah and all her children, but to Hannah he would give a fat/choice portion, because he loved Hannah she did not have a child, though Elqanah loved Hannah more than this one, and Yahweh had closed her womb. Her rival provoked her greatly in order to enrage her Because Yahweh had not given her a child according to her affliction and the vexation of her affliction, she was vexed because of this. For Yahweh had closed up her womb so as not to give her a child. Thus she did year after year as often as she went up to the house of Yahweh, she would be vexed; she wept and would not eat. Elqanah her husband said to her, “Hannah,” and she said to him, “Here I am, lord.” He said to her, “Why do what is it to you that you weep, why do you not eat, why is your heart sad does your heart smite you? Am I not more to you than ten sons?” Hannah arose after she they had eaten at Shiloh and presented herself before Yahweh, while Eli the priest was sitting on the seat by the doorpost of the temple of Yahweh. She was deeply distressed and prayed to Yahweh weeping bitterly. She made a vow to Yahweh saying, “Lord, Yahweh God of Hosts, if only you will look on the misery of your maidservant, and remember me, and give to your maidservant a male child, then I will give him before you as a nazirite until the day of his death. He will drink neither wine nor strong drink, and no razor will touch his head.” As she continued to pray before Yahweh, Eli observed her mouth. She was speaking in her heart; only her lips moved, but her voice was not heard. Therefore Eli thought she was drunk. The servant of Eli said to her, “How long will you be drunk? Put away your wine, and go out from the presence of Yahweh.” Hannah answered and said, “No, my lord, I am an unfortunate woman. Wine and strong drink I have not drunk, but I have been pouring out my soul before God. Do not regard your maidservant as a worthless woman, for out of the greatness of my anxiety and vexation I have continued until now.” Eli answered and said, “Go in peace, may the god of Israel grant you your every petition you have made to him.” She said, “Let your servant find favor in your sight.” The woman went on her way and came toward the dining hall; she ate and drank with her husband and no longer had a sad face her face was fallen. They arose early in the morning and worshiped Yahweh and went their way. Elqanah entered his house at Ramathaim and knew his wife Hannah, and Yahweh remembered her and she conceived. In due time she bore a son, and she called his name Samuel, “for from Yahweh God of Sebaoth I have requested him.” The man Elqanah and all his household went up to offer in Shiloh the yearly sacrifice, his votive offerings, and all his tithes. But Hannah did not go up, for she said to her husband, “until the boy goes up when I have weaned him and he will appear to the face of God and stay there forever.” Her husband Elqanah said to her, “Do what you think is good, stay until you have weaned him. Only may Yahweh establish your vow!” So the woman remained and nursed her son until she weaned him. She went up with him to Shiloh with a three-year-old bull calf, bread, an ephah of flour, and a skin of wine and entered into the house of Yahweh at Shiloh, and the boy was with them. They brought him before Yahweh, and his father slaughtered the sacrifice that he used to do yearly to Yahweh, and he brought the boy near and slaughtered the bull calf. Hannah, the mother of the child, brought him to Eli and said, “Oh my lord, as you live, I am the woman who was standing near you, praying to Yahweh. For this boy I prayed and Yahweh has granted me the petition I made to him. Therefore I have given him to Yahweh all the days that he lives, a loan to Yahweh.” She worshipped there to Yahweh and said,

My heart exults in Yahweh, my strength is exalted by my god;

My mouth opened wide after my enemy, for I rejoiced in your victory;

There is no holy one like Yahweh, there is no rock like our god, there is no holy one besides you;

Do not speak very proudly, let not arrogance come from your mouth;

For a god of knowledge is Yahweh, a god who balances his actions;

The bows of the mighty are broken, but the feeble gird on strength;

Those who were full have hired themselves out for bread, but those who were hungry are fat with spoil;

The barren has borne seven, but she who has many children is bereaved;

Yahweh causes to die and brings to life, he brings down to Sheol and raises up;

Yahweh makes poor and makes rich, he makes low, he also exalts;

He raises up the poor from the dust, he lifts the needy from the ash heap,

To make them sit with princes and inherit a seat of honor.

Granting the prayer to the one who prays, he has blessed the years of the righteous;

For not by strength is a man mighty;

Yahweh will shatter his adversary; Yahweh is holy;

Let not the wise boast in their wisdom, let not the mighty boast in their might;

Let not the wealthy boast in their wealth, but let those who boast boast in this, the one who understands and knows Yahweh, the one who does justice and righteousness in the land;

Yahweh went up to the heavens and thundered;

Yahweh will judge the ends of the earth, he will give strength to his king our kings and exalt the horn of his anointed.

 

She left him there before Yahweh and went to Ramathaim

 

The MT Recension

There was a certain man of Ramathaim Zuphim from the hill country of Ephraim, whose name was Elqanah son of Yeroham son of Elihu son of Tohu son of Ziph, an Ephraimite. He had two wives, the name of the one was Hannah, and the name of the other Peninnah. Peninnah had children, but Hannah had no children. Now this man used to go up year by year from his town to worship and to sacrifice to Yahweh of Hosts at Shiloh, where the two sons of Eli, Hophni and Phinehas, were priests of Yahweh. On one day Elqanah sacrificed, and he would give portions to his wife Peninnah and all her children, but to Hannah he would give a fat/choice portion, because he loved her, though Yahweh had closed her womb. Her rival provoked her greatly in order to enrage her, because Yahweh had closed up her womb. Thus he did year after year as often as she went up to the house of Yahweh, she provoked her and she wept and would not eat. Elqanah her husband said to her, “Hannah, why do you weep, why do you not eat, why is your heart sad? Am I not more to you than ten sons? Hannah arose after she had eaten and drank at Shiloh and presented herself before Yahweh, while Eli the priest was sitting on the seat by the doorpost of the temple of Yahweh. She was deeply distressed and prayed to Yahweh weeping bitterly. She made a vow saying, “Yahweh of Hosts, if only you will look on the misery of your maidservant, and remember me and not forget your maidservant, and give to your maidservant a male child, then I will give him before you as a nazirite until the day of his death all the days of his life. He will drink neither wine nor strong drink, and no razor will touch his head.” As she continued to pray before Yahweh, Eli observed her mouth. She was speaking in her heart; only her lips moved, but her voice was not heard. Therefore Eli thought she was drunk. He said to her, “How long will you be drunk? Put away your wine, and go out from the presence of Yahweh.” Hannah answered and said, “No, my lord, I am a woman hard of spirit.” Wine and strong drink I have not drunk, but I have been pouring out my soul before God. Do not regard your maidservant before a daughter of Belial, for out of the greatness of my anxiety and vexation I have spoken until now.” Eli answered and said, “Go in peace, may the god of Israel grant the petition you have made to him.” She said, “Let your servant find favor in your sight.” The woman went on her way and came toward the dining hall; she ate and drank with her husband and no longer had a sad face. They arose early in the morning and worshiped before Yahweh and went their way. Elqanah entered his house at Ramathaim They returned and came to their house toward Ramah and Elqanah knew his wife Hannah, and Yahweh remembered her and she conceived. In due time she conceived and bore a son, and she called his name Samuel, “for from Yahweh I have requested him.” The man Elqanah and all his household went up to offer in Shiloh the yearly sacrifice and his votive offering. But Hannah did not go up, for she said to her husband, “until the boy goes up when I have weaned him is weaned, then I will bring him and he will appear to the face of God and stay there forever.” Her husband Elqanah said to her, “Do what you think is good, stay until you have weaned him. Only may Yahweh establish your vow his word!” So the woman remained and nursed her son until she weaned him. She went up with him to Shiloh brought him up with her when she had weaned him with a three-year-old bull calf, an ephah of flour, and a skin of wine and entered she caused him to enter into the house of Yahweh at Shiloh, and the boy was with them. They brought him before Yahweh, and his father a servant. They slaughtered the bull calf. Hannah, the mother of the child, and brought him the boy to Eli and she said, “Oh my lord, as you my lord live, I am the woman who was standing near you, praying to Yahweh. For this boy I prayed and Yahweh has granted me the petition I made to him. Therefore I have given him to Yahweh all the days that he lives, a loan to Yahweh.” She He worshipped there to Yahweh and Hannah prayed and said,

My heart exults in Yahweh, my strength is exalted by my god;

My mouth opened wide after my enemy, for I rejoiced in your victory;

There is no holy one like Yahweh, there is none beside you, no rock like our god;

Do not speak very proudly, let not arrogance come from your mouth;

For a god of knowledge is Yahweh, actions are weighed [by him?];

The bows of the mighty are broken, but the feeble gird on strength;

Those who were full have hired themselves out for bread, but those who were hungry are fat with spoil;

The barren has borne seven, but she who has many children is bereaved;

Yahweh causes to die and brings to life, he brings down to Sheol and raises up;

Yahweh makes poor and makes rich, he makes low, he also exalts;

He raises up the poor from the dust, he lifts the needy from the ash heap,

To make them sit with princes and inherit a seat of honor.

For the pillars of the earth are Yahweh’s, and on them he has set the world;

He will guard the feet of his faithful ones, but the wicked will be cut off in darkness;

For not by strength is a man mighty;

Yahweh will shatter his adversary; the Most High will thunder in heaven;

Yahweh will judge the ends of the earth, he will give strength to his king and exalt the horn of his anointed.

 

She left him there before Yahweh and Elqanah went home to Ramathaim Ramah

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